By philosophy of science is empirical. It holds to evaluating literature, scriptural or otherwise, within a context of time and place rather than assuming claims or assumptions of eternal universality. Like science it is agnostic about matters beyond the world known through the senses. The philosophy of science has the study of history as its foundation. History is its source of respect for science. This is a history that need not include assumptions about abstract patterns in the course of human history. Like science it avoids claim to universal knowledge and takes no pride in certainty but does take pride in its willingness to repair it approximations.
Science believes in measurement. Scientists measure objects, energy fields, heat, a lot of stuff to which humanity has access through their senses. Scientists also deduce, with math. And they do what is called abductive reasoning, in other words hypothetical explanation: this morning the grass outside is very wet, therefore it must have rained last night. Scientists can adhere to a variety of ideas and remain scientists. Some scientists are religious. Some might belong to a school of thought called dualism, which accepts reality as both spiritual and material. And there are those who instead limit themselves to the empirical and described themselves as adhering to the "philosophy of science."
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